What is the Gap Theory?

gap.gifOne of the popular devices for trying to accommodate the evolutionary ages of the geologists and astronomers in the creation record of the Bible has been the “gap theory”—also called the “ruin-and-reconstruction” theory.

According to this concept, Genesis 1:1 describes the initial creation of the universe. Following this, the standard events of cosmic evolution took place, which eventually produced our solar system about five billion years ago. Then, on the earth, the various geologic ages followed, as identified by their respective assemblages of fossils (trilobites, dinosaurs, etc.).

But then occurred a devastating global cataclysm, destroying all life on Earth and leaving a vast fossil graveyard everywhere. This situation is then said to be what is described in Genesis 1:2. “And the earth was without form and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep.” The cataclysm is thought to have occurred as a result of the rebellion of Satan and his angels against their Creator in Heaven, with God then casting them out of Heaven to the earth.

Those who advocate the gap theory agree that the six days of the creation week were literal days, but they interpret them only as days of recreation, with God creating again many of the kinds of animals and plants destroyed in the cataclysm.

What is the Purpose of the Gap Theory?

The gap theory was developed mainly for the purpose of accommodating the great ages demanded by evolutionary geologists. This idea was first popularized by a Scottish theologian, Thomas Chalmers, early in the 19th century. In this country, the famous Scofield Study Bible made it an almost universally accepted teaching among fundamentalists.

The Scofield Bible notes on Genesis I include the following:

The first act refers to the dateless past, and gives scope for all the geologic ages. . . . The face of the earth bears everywhere the marks of such a catastrophe. There are not wanting intimations which connect it with a previous testing and fall of angels. . . . Relegate fossils to the primitive creation, and no conflict of science with the Genesis cosmogony remains.

However, serious conflicts do remain. In fact, there are few, if any, professionally trained geologists and astronomers (to my knowledge there are none) who accept the gap theory. The promoters of this theory have mostly been Bible teachers who hoped they could place these great ages in a gap between the first two verses of Genesis, and thus not have to deal with them at all.

With the modem revival of scientific Biblical creationism, many of these teachers have abandoned the gap theory in favor of strict creationism. Most advocates of the gap idea were men of strong Biblical faith, and when they were shown its Biblical fallacies, plus its scientific inadequacies, they were quite willing to reject the evolutionary ages scheme altogether.

Many of us had naively assumed that the gap theory was moribund, and so had concentrated most of our critiques on the other compromise theories (day-age theory, framework theory, etc.). But it now appears that the gap theory is still being advocated by a number of evangelical theologians.

For example, the Nelson Study Bible, published this year (1997), in its footnotes on Genesis 1:1 and 1:2, says:

Here it means that God renewed what was in a chaotic state. God changed chaos into cosmos, disorder into order, emptiness into fullness. . . . The two words, without form and void, express one concept—chaos. The earth had been reduced to this state—it was not the way God had first created it.

The editors and contributors to this volume—43 in all—include many well-known evangelical leaders. Yet they feel they must allow for the geological ages, and so they opt for what amounts to the old gap theory again with its pre-Adamic cataclysm. The notes in this study Bible do allow a worldwide Flood, but there are no relevant comments on the effects of sin and the curse on the animal kingdom, and no mention of the billions of fossils now preserved in the earth’s sedimentary rock beds.

Is the Gap Theory Scientific?

The reason why geologists will not accept the gap theory is that it contradicts their assumption that the past is continuous with the present. There is no room in their naturalistic approach to science for a global cataclysm that would destroy all life and then require a new creation of plants, animals, and people such as the gap theory proposes.

Any cataclysm that would leave the earth “without form and void” (or “a shapeless chaotic mass” as The Living Bible expresses it), with “darkness on the face of the deep” everywhere, would require a worldwide nuclear or volcanic explosion that would effectively disintegrate the whole crust of the earth. All pre-cataclysm mountains would be blown into the sea and billions of tons of rocks and dust blown into the atmosphere, leaving the earth covered with “the deep” everywhere and “darkness” covering the deep everywhere.

Such a cataclysm would disintegrate any previously deposited sedimentary deposits with their the-gapfossils and thus obliterate all evidence of any previous “geological ages.” Thus the gap theory, which is supposed to accommodate the geological ages, requires a cataclysm which would destroy all evidence for the geological ages.

Is it Theologically Sound?

The gap theory is also unsound theologically. The God of Creation is an omnipotent and omniscient God, and is also a God of grace, mercy, and love. The very concept of the geological ages, on the other hand, implies a wasteful and cruel “god,” and therefore probably no god at all.

The supposed geologic ages are identified in terms of the fossils found in the earth’s sedimentary rocks, and there are multiplied billions of them there. But fossils speak of death—even violent death. The preservation of dead animals requires rapid burial if they are to last very long. There are many regions, for example, where there are millions of fossil fish preserved in the rocks. There are dinosaur fossil beds on every continent, as well as great beds of fossil marine invertebrates practically everywhere. These may indeed speak of cataclysmic death and burial, but not a cataclysm operating slowly over billions of years, as the geological ages imply. If the gap theory were valid, it would mean that God had instituted an ages-long system of suffering and death over the world, before there were ever any men and women to place in dominion over that world, and then suddenly destroy it in a violent cataclysm. Why would an omnipotent, merciful God do such a wasteful and cruel thing as that?

They cannot blame Satan, either. According to the gap theory, Satan’s fall took place at the end of the geological ages, followed by the great pre-Adamic cataclysm on the earth. Thus the geological ages, with their eons of cruelty and waste, took place even before Satan’s sin. God Himself would be solely responsible for the whole debacle, if it really happened.

But is the Gap Theory Biblical?

If the Bible actually teaches the gap theory’ however, then there might be some reason to try to accommodate it in our theology. But the Bible does not teach it! If there really had been billions of years of animals suffering and dying before Genesis 1:2, why would God say nothing about it? The best they can offer in support of such a notion are some out-of-context quotes from Isaiah and Jeremiah, along with an ad hoc translation of Genesis 1:1,2.

And why would God send such a devastating cataclysm at all? Satan’s fall did not occur until after the creation week of Genesis 1, for at that time God had pronounced the whole creation “very good” (Genesis 1: 31). At present, however, “the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together” (Romans 8:22) because of the great curse pronounced by God on man’s dominion (Genesis 3:17-19), as a result of sin.

This groaning creation has indeed experienced one global cataclysm—one not inferred from vague hints in out-of-context quotes, but rather one described in great detail in Genesis 6-9 and referred to often and unambiguously in later passages—namely, the worldwide Flood in the days of Noah. Most of the vast fossil graveyards in the earth’s crust can best be explained as one of the results of the Flood.

This awesome spectacle of destruction and death was not part of God’s “very good” creation. There was no death in the world until sin was in the world (Romans 5:12; I Corinthians 15:21; etc.). In fact, death itself is “the wages of sin” (Romans 6:23). Our future deliverance from sin and death has been purchased by the substitutionary death of Jesus Christ, who is “the propitiation for our sins and … also for the sins of the whole world” (John 2:2).

But if “death reigned” not “from Adam to Moses,” as the Bible says (Romans 5:14), but had already reigned for billions of years before Adam, then death is not the wages of sin but instead was part of God’s creative purpose. How then could the death of Christ put away sin? The gap theory thus undermines the very gospel of our salvation, as well as the holy character of God.

The fact is that no such gap exists between the first two verses of Genesis at all. The second verse merely describes the initial aspect of the creation as “without form and void”—that is, with neither structure nor inhabitants. The rest of the chapter tells how God produced a marvelous structure for His created universe, with multitudes of plant and animal inhabitants for the earth, all to be under the dominion of its human inhabitants created in the image of God. It was only then that God pronounced the creation “finished” (Genesis 2:1).

It is time for those who believe the Bible and in the goodness and wisdom of God to abandon the gap theory once and for all (as well as the day-age theory, which is even worse) and simply believe what God has said. The gap theory has no scientific merit, requires a very forced Biblical exegesis, and leads to a God-dishonoring theology. It does not work, either Biblically or scientifically.

* Dr. Henry Morris is Founder and President Emeritus of ICR.

http://www.icr.org/article/why-gap-theory-wont-work/

These next articles can be found at:

https://answersingenesis.org/genesis/gap-theory/what-about-the-gap-and-ruin-reconstruction-theories/

Gap Theory Examined Biblically

This brief overview shows that the gap theory is not biblical. It is, in fact, a compromise of the truth of Genesis, which arose when Christian leaders tried to accommodate the millions of years claimed for fossil layers.

Hebrew Words and the Gap Theory

Many adherents of the gap theory claim that the grammar of Genesis 1:1–2 allows, and even requires, a time-gap between the events in verse 1 and the events in verse 2. Into this gap—believed by many to be billions of years—they want to place all the major geological phenomena that have shaped the world.

Variations of the Gap Theory

The “modified gap theory” or “precreation chaos gap theory,” which is the proposed “gap” between Genesis 1:2 and 1:3, is unscriptural, and ultimately unnecessary. In fact, several gap models have been proposed over the years for one reason—to add secular ideas of long ages to the Bible.

The “Gap” Theory is dangerous. It is a classic example of man putting words into the mouth of God.

This so called gap isn’t there. It can be conjured up and imagined there, but truthfully, the Bible does not include any information on a space of time where God used millions of years to create the universe through evolution.

This lie is nothing more than sin and rebellion and will be punished by a sovereign and holy God.

The New Cancer Eating the Bride

Untitled.pngIt has come to my attention as of late that Christians, so-called biblically saved Christians, are accepting and embracing what can be termed as Theistic Evolution. A simple definition of this term can be said like this: God used evolution to create everything. Why is this dangerous? Because if you embrace evolution at all, you embrace many dangerous lies, such as man was created out of the apes and not in the image of God, that death came before life, that we are nothing more than a higher form of mammal…and this list continues.

To me personally, nothing is more insulting to the sovereignty of God than theistic evolution. The whole idea of evolution is full of errors, mistakes and happenstance. God is perfect and everything He does is perfect. Every aspect of the universe is perfect. Here’s some examples of His perfectness:

The size of the sun in comparison to the earth.

The size and distances of the planets in comparison to the earth and sun.

The size of the orbits of the planets in comparison to the sun.

The size of the moon in relation to the size of the earth and the distance between the moon and the earth.

The amount of atmosphere on the earth is perfect with the exact amount of elements needed for life. If the atmosphere was thicker or thinner the earth could not support life.

The clotting system of our bodies is perfectly designed. If we were missing one element in this system we would bleed out at the first scratch.

And on it goes…this list is literally endless, and with my limited laymen’s knowledge of science, I only know of a few.

How did this start? I mean, really…when did God become an evolutionist?

How did this cancer get into the church? I can see the church of the false convert, but the bride?

More and more as the days and years go by, we are seeing Christian leaders falling by the way side. It seems the Ever Narrowing Way is getting narrower, and the pressure of being conformed is ejecting people onto the Broad Way where they seem to either fall into the error of the strong delusion or they are falling back into their sinful lifestyle as the unregenerate sinners they are.

Among the “Christian” leaders of today that are not only embracing Theistic Evolution or downright endorsing it are:

Tim Keller, Pastor, Author, The Reason for God
Many people today, both secular and Christian, want us to believe that science and religion cannot live together. Not only is this untrue, but we believe that a thoughtful dialogue between science and faith is essential for engaging the hearts and minds of individuals today. BioLogos provides an important first step towards that end.

– Tim Keller, Pastor, Author, The Reason for God

N.T. Wright, Former Bishop of Durham
Christians and secularists alike are in danger of treating ‘Darwin vs the Bible’ as just another battlefront in the polarized ‘culture wars’. This grossly misrepresents both science and faith. BioLogos not only shows that there is an alternative, but actually models it. God’s world and God’s word go together in a rich, living harmony.

– N.T. Wright, Former Bishop of Durham

Philip Yancey, Author of Vanishing Grace and Where is God When it Hurts?
[The BioLogos team] may be the only people in the world capable of pulling off this project. They have courage as well as unquestioned respect from both sides of the debate, which has long begged for bridge-builders.

– Philip Yancey, Author of Vanishing Grace and Where is God When it Hurts?

Os Guinness, Author and Social Critic
A wise, constructive rapprochement between faith and science is one of the world’s urgent needs, and this need will only intensify as the global era raises a host of new ethical issues. Few people have the expertise, wisdom, and prestige to make such a contribution. I welcome BioLogos warmly.

– Os Guinness, Author and Social Critic

Mark Noll, Francis A. McAnaney Professor of History, University of Notre Dame
BioLogos continues to show that firm belief in the truth-telling character of Scripture can support, rather than undermine, the best scientific investigations. All who are invested in any aspect of these questions should applaud their good work in transforming science and religion from a war zone to an instructive conversation.

– Mark Noll, Francis A. McAnaney Professor of History, University of Notre Dame

John Ortberg, Pastor, Menlo Church
Jesus said that we are to love the Lord our God with all our mind. That means scientific investigation ought to be an act of worship. BioLogos is helping to recover an enormously important endeavor for the church in our day, and I am grateful to God that it exists and is bringing light to places that too often only get heat.

– John Ortberg, Pastor, Menlo Church

Richard Mouw, Professor of Christian Theology, Fuller Theological Seminary
We are living in a time when the big questions about faith and science can be both fascinating and challenging. Biologos provides us with a “safe space” to explore the complexities in the confidence that all truth–including that which comes from the serious study of “the book of nature”– is God’s truth.

– Richard Mouw, Professor of Christian Theology, Fuller Theological Seminary

Andy Crouch, Journalist, Executive Editor for Christianity Today
The conversations I’ve experienced through BioLogos—with scientists, theologians, biblical scholars, philosophers, and pastors—have been among the most enjoyable, informative, and challenging learning experiences of my life. BioLogos seeks to bring both grace and truth to the many intersection points of contemporary science and biblical faith.

– Andy Crouch, Journalist, Executive Editor for Christianity Today

Barbara Bradley Hagerty, Journalist
I believe we are at a critical juncture in the life of modern Christianity: We can either acknowledge and embrace the challenges – and the insights – that science poses to faith, or we can run away from them. BioLogos, more than any other organization, is navigating this tricky and exciting terrain. I’m delighted to be associated with BioLogos’ thoughtful inquiry in the mysteries of science and Christianity.

– Barbara Bradley Hagerty, Journalist

Pastor, Joel C. Hunter, Senior Pastor, Northland - A Church Distributed, Longwood, FL
“My participation in BioLogos gatherings has profoundly benefited my pastoral leadership. Not only was I informed and inspired intellectually, but I was encouraged by being in the community of other spiritual leaders who desire to deepen their understanding and worship of the Creator.  I have used BioLogos materials and insights gained from the dialogue they foster, both in the conversations I have in church and the resources we produce to promote Creation Care (e.g. http://vimeo.com/61121345 ) Yet the real benefit comes from normalizing the complementarity of science and scripture in our congregation.

– Pastor, Joel C. Hunter, Senior Pastor, Northland – A Church Distributed, Longwood, FL

Bishop Claude Alexander, Senior Pastor of The Park Church
BioLogos provides a space where followers of Christ across the disciplines of science and religion are able to affirm their shared belief in and worship of God as the creator of all that is, and their common concern for the proper stewardship of God’s creation in a manner that appreciates the integrity of their disciplines and the authenticity of their faith communities.

Through its programs, the points of intersection between science and biblical faith, along with the tensions and challenges, are explored in a collegial fashion that leads all to an enhanced wonder of God and ability to communicate effectively the harmony that is found in them.

– Bishop Claude Alexander, Senior Pastor of The Park Church

Ross Hastings, Associate Professor of Pastoral Theology, Regent College, British Columbia
Robust theology, sane biblical interpretation and honest science meet at BioLogos. I cannot overestimate the missional importance of this for our times.

– Ross Hastings, Associate Professor of Pastoral Theology, Regent College, British Columbia

Ruth Bancewicz, The Faraday Institute of Science and Religion
BioLogos demonstrates how we can discuss the relationship between science and the Bible in a gracious and intellectually rigorous way. I return to the resources on biologos.org time and time again.

– Ruth Bancewicz, The Faraday Institute of Science and Religion

Harvey Clemons Jr., Reverend at Pleasant Hill Baptist Church
The amazing planet on which we live and the vast world we seek to understand as people of faith compels us to search for the majesty of our Creator and His Creation. I am humbled and honored to journey with BioLogos as it creates a safe atmosphere to pursue probing and intellectual conversations while holding to our faith and confidence in God the Creator, Christ the Savior and His guiding Spirit.

– Harvey Clemons Jr., Reverend at Pleasant Hill Baptist Church

Tim O'Connor, Professor of Philosophy, Indiana University
BioLogos has built an impressive and still-growing network of small-“o” orthodox Christians from the sciences, arts & humanities, theology, biblical studies, and pastoral ministry. What unites us is a shared passion for persuading all faithful Christians to see the consensus results of the sciences not as part of some rival worldview but as a divinely-blessed means to deepen our understanding of God’s creation.

– Tim O’Connor, Professor of Philosophy, Indiana University

Stephen Blake, Filmmaker and President of Realm Entertainment
BioLogos is one of the very most important ministries in existence today because it so effectively addresses a formidable crisis the Church faces.  As militant skeptics wield science to destroy the faith of believers, BioLogos exposes the unscientific philosophical presuppositions behind their arguments while vividly demonstrating the consonance between what God has revealed in His Word and what He reveals as we explore His creation (science = the exploration of God’s creation).

– Stephen Blake, Filmmaker and President of Realm Entertainment

Jeff Hardin, Chair of the Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin
By providing books, online resources, and digital media of high quality, BioLogos is an invaluable resource in my work with both Christian students and those investigating Christianity. In BioLogos, students see modeled before them a Psalm 19 way of thinking: that both God’s world and his word declare his glory.

– Jeff Hardin, Chair of the Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin

Elaine Howard Ecklund, Herbert S. Autrey Chair in Social Sciences and Professor of Sociology at Rice University
BioLogos—more than any other organization I know of—helps churches understand the beauty of science.

– Elaine Howard Ecklund, Herbert S. Autrey Chair in Social Sciences and Professor of Sociology at Rice University

Daniel Harrell, Senior Minister, Colonial Church, Edina, MN
Science is often misused to dismiss and discredit Christian faith. BioLogos elevates science and faith together thus allowing wonder and humility to displace cynicism and arrogance.

– Daniel Harrell, Senior Minister, Colonial Church, Edina, MN

Praveen Sethupathy, Assistant Professor in the Department of Genetics, UNC Chapel Hill
BioLogos is leading the way in setting the tone for thoughtful and productive dialogue on the topic of harmony between science and faith.  They are providing the much-needed space for wrestling with the tough questions of life with civility, integrity, and rigor.

– Praveen Sethupathy, Assistant Professor in the Department of Genetics, UNC Chapel Hill

Denis Alexander, Emeritus Director of The Faraday Institute for Science and Religion
BioLogos is carrying out an incredibly valuable task in seeking to build bridges between science and faith, and helping Christians and others to engage with the theory of evolution in an informed way. When Christians have questions about creation and evolution, the BioLogos web-site is where I suggest they go for help.

– Denis Alexander, Emeritus Director of The Faraday Institute for Science and Religion

Justin Barrett, Chief Project Developer for the Office of Science, Theology, and Religion Initiatives at Fuller Theological Seminary
A striking thing about BioLogos, not just that it convenes and equips thought leaders, but that it also cultivates Christian worship. Deep respect for God’s written revelation and the powerful tools of science flows into adoration of the Creator.

– Justin Barrett, Chief Project Developer for the Office of Science, Theology, and Religion Initiatives at Fuller Theological Seminary

Greg Cootsona, Lecturer in Religious Studies and Humanities at California State University at Chico
BioLogos represents a leading voice for integrating “mere Christianity” with mainstream science. Having taught science and faith in congregational and academic settings over the past two decades, I continually look to BioLogos for the most effective ways to engage a biblically-informed, Christ-centered faith with the rigors and discoveries of science, all as a way of appreciating this beautiful creation and an even more glorious Creator.

– Greg Cootsona, Lecturer in Religious Studies and Humanities at California State University at Chico

Stephen Freeland, Astrobiologist and the Director of Interdisciplinary Studies at UMBC - See more at: http://biologos.org/about-us/advisory-council/stephen-freeland#sthash.uAYTnpWV.dpuf
As a Christian and an evolutionary biologist, I support with enthusiasm the work of BioLogos as part of my personal commitment to nurture dialog (dia-Logos!) between science and the Christian faith. I identify most strongly with the organization’s eleventh article of belief (“What we believe”): We believe that conversations among Christians about controversial issues of science and faith can and must be conducted with humility, grace, honesty, and compassion as a visible sign of the Spirit’s presence in Christ’s body, the Church.

– Stephen Freeland, Astrobiologist and the Director of Interdisciplinary Studies at UMBC – See more at: http://biologos.org/about-us/advisory-council/stephen-freeland#sthash.uAYTnpWV.dpuf

Leslie Wickman, PhD , Executive Director, American Scientific Affiliation
BioLogos helps both laypeople and scholars wrestle with the connections between the science of biological origins and Christian theology. I am happy to have the BioLogos perspective as well as others represented within the American Scientific Affiliation.

– Leslie Wickman, PhD , Executive Director, American Scientific Affiliation

John Stott, Pastor, Theologian, and Author
“It is most unfortunate that some who debate [evolution] begin by assuming that the words ‘creation’ and ‘evolution’ are mutually exclusive. If everything has come into existence through evolution, they say, then biblical creation has been disproved, whereas if God has created all things, then evolution must be false. It is, rather, this naïve alternative which is false. It presupposes a very narrow definition of the two terms, both of which in fact have a wide range of meanings, and both of which are being freshly discussed today.” -from Understanding the Bible 

 

– John Stott, Pastor, Theologian, and Author

http://biologos.org/about-us/endorsements/#sthash.cw5BmRc1.dpuf

The Billy Graham Association embraces Theistic Evolution.

John MacArthur was interviewed regarding the dangers of Theistic Evolution, and this is what he had to say:

One pressing issue in the church today is that of creation and evolution. Do you believe that a person can be genuinely saved and believe in some kind of theistic evolution? How serious a theological error is it to reject a literal 6-day creation?

It’s a very serious error in my estimation, because it attacks the authority of Scripture at the Bible’s very starting point. It employs a special hermeneutic in order to make the Bible mean quite the opposite of what it plainly states. And once you open that door, absolutely nothing is safe from the assaults of rationalism, skepticism, and rank unbelief.

I watch the propaganda being published by organizations like Biologos, and it’s hard to resist the conclusion that many of the people who are involved in that project don’t seem to be believers at all, given the large portions of Scripture they regularly have to explain away in order to justify their convoluted worldview.

As a matter of fact, the history of modernist rationalism is littered with vivid examples of why it is unsafe and spiritually destructive to subject Scripture to naturalistic presuppositions. I wrote on this topic in detail at the very beginning of my book The Battle for the Beginning.

But in answer to your specific question: I do think it is possible for a genuine believer to be confused or befuddled by scientific arguments regarding evolution and the age of the earth. (It is certainly possible for believers to be inconsistent in their beliefs—to hold all kinds of errors in varying degrees. That’s called cognitive dissonance.)

Well-meaning evangelicals have experimented with several ways to reconcile old-earth theories with Scripture. One of the more popular ideas (until Henry Morris exploded it) was that there’s a gap in the white space between Genesis 1:1 and verse 2, and (so the theory goes) that silent gap might accommodate countless ages of change and chaos in the universe. Spurgeon held to a version of the gap theory, and the original Scofield Bible embraced both the gap theory and old-earth cosmology with blithe enthusiasm. Of course we would not consign everyone who ever held such an opinion to the ranks of unbelief.

Nevertheless, as evolutionary theory has developed and devolved into untouchable dogma—a favorite weapon for the current generation of angry atheists—I don’t see how any sober-minded, well-grounded, fully-committed Christian who truly believes what the Bible teaches can long maintain faith in the various and ever-changing theories evolutionary scientists keep proposing. Biblical cosmology, the Genesis account of how the human race was created and subsequently fell, and the important parallels between Adam and Christ in the story of redemption—these are essential beliefs of Christianity; they have never changed; and they are diametrically opposed to every purely naturalistic theory about life’s origins.

Anyone who takes seriously the authority of Scripture must ultimately set the opinions of men aside and simply trust what Scripture says. The earlier we do that, the better. Frankly, I have never understood why someone who believes in the literal bodily resurrection of Christ would balk at believing all of Scripture, starting with Genesis 1:1.

Are you part of this problem? Are you compromising truth for popular ideologies and philosophies? If you claim to be saved by the sole work of Christ on the cross, then this ideology should be disgusting to you. You should shrink away in revulsion regarding this humanistic and demonic lie.

To reduce God to a gambler who deals in chance and error is the most insulting of all as it takes away from His grandeur, His sovereignty and His perfectness, and I for one, will stand against this lie for all my worth.

Links to this subject are included below. Some are biblical, some aren’t. Please use your judgment.

http://biologos.org/about-us/endorsements/

http://www.newcalvinist.com/tim-kellers-false-gospel/kellers-theistic-evolution/

https://biologos.org/uploads/projects/Keller_white_paper.pdf

https://answersingenesis.org/theistic-evolution/is-it-possible-to-be-a-christian-and-an-evolutionist/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acceptance_of_evolution_by_religious_groups

https://www.gty.org/library/articles/A188/is-evolution-compatible-with-christianity

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theistic_evolution